Glossary

Adult Stem Cells

are thought to be undifferentiated cells, found among differentiated cells in a tissue or organ that can renew themselves and can ›differentiate to yield some or all of the major specialized cell types of the tissue or organ. The primary roles of adult stem cells in a living organism are to maintain and repair the tissue in which they are found. Adult stem cells, similar to embryonic stem cells, have the ability to differentiate into more than one cell type, but unlike embryonic stem cells they are often restricted to certain lineages.

Allogeneic

A transplant where the donated material comes from different (although often related) individual than the recipient

ATMP (Advance Therapy Medicinal Products)

are medicinal products which are prepared industrially or manufactured by a method involving an industrial process. ATMPs fall into three categories; Gene Therapies, Somatic Cell Therapies and Tissue Engineered Products.

Autologous

derived or transferred from the same individual's body

Biopsy

is a medical test commonly performed by a surgeon or an interventional radiologist involving sampling of cells or tissues for examination. It is the medical removal of tissue from a living subject to determine the presence or extent of a disease. The tissue is generally examined under a microscope by a pathologist, and can also be analyzed chemically.

BMP (Bone Morphogenetic Proteins)

A member of a superfamily of proteins that promote the formation of bone and the skeleton and help mend broken bones.

(Cell) Differentiation

is a process in which a generic cell develops into a specific type of cell in response to triggers from the body or the cell itself. This is the process which allows a single celled zygote to develop into a multicellular adult organism that can contain hundreds of different types of cells. In addition to being critical to embryonic development, cell differentiation also plays a role in the function of many organisms, particularly complex organisms, throughout their lives.

In vitro

In glass, as in a test tube. An in vitro test is one that is done in glass or plastic vessels in the laboratory. In vitro is the opposite of in vivo

In vivo

is experimentation using a whole, living organism as opposed to a partial or dead organism, or an in vitro controlled environment. Animal testing and clinical trials are two forms of in vivo research.

Lymphocytes

are small white blood cells that play a role in the body's immune response (that is, in the body's fight against germs and diseases). There are two main types of lymphocytes, known as B cells and T cells (also known as B lymphocytes and T lymphocytes). The B cells produce antibodies that attack foreign molecules (germs and the toxins they produce). The ›T cells are more complicated, but they can attack the body's own cells when they are diseased (for example, when the cells have been invaded by cancer or viruses).

Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSC)

are ›pluripotent cells isolated from the bone marrow and various other organs. They are able to proliferate and self-renew, as well as to give rise to progeny of at least the osteogenic, chondrogenic, and adipogenic lineages.

Osteoinduction

encouraging undifferentiated cells to become active osteoblasts

Osteoconduction

guiding the reparative growth of the natural bone

Pluripotent

Pluripotent stem cells, found in embryos, can give rise to all the cells found in the human body – cells as diverse as those found in the brain, bone, heart and skin.

Regenerative Medicine

A relatively young branch of biomedicine. Research focuses on identifying self-healing processes in the human body and using them to develop new diagnostic and treatment procedures.

Regulatory Affairs

is a comparatively new profession which developed from the desire of governments to protect public health by controlling the safety and efficacy of products in areas including pharmaceuticals, veterinary medicines, medical devices, pesticides, agrochemicals, cosmetics and complementary medicines.

Stem Cells

are undifferentiated or 'blank' cells found in the human body that have the potential to develop into many different cell types that carry out different functions. Most cells in the human body are ›differentiated. That means they are built to function in a particular organ system and carry out a specific function.

Translation

means implementation of scientific results in therapeutic practise which is economically justifiable. These include pre-clinical studies, preparation and performance of clinical studies, monitoring marketing compliance, and reimbursement by the compulsory health insurance funds, as well as development of valorisation concepts and commercialisation models.

T Cells

A type of white blood cell that is of key importance to the immune system and is at the core of adaptive immunity, the system that tailors the body's immune response to specific pathogens. The T cells are like soldiers who search out and destroy the targeted invaders.

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